The FIGHTING FAKE NEWS Magazine contains a set of interesting articles on how to combat fake news and the impact they have upon readers. The articles are written by a multinational team of youngsters that have gathered during FIGHTING FAKE NEWS PROJECT specific competences and skills, and developed their knowledge and abilities to identify and determine how a source is reliable and what actions to be taken against misinformation of masses. There were used open source images and content that we do not own. During 9 days, the 35 youngsters from Romania, Italy, Greece, Lithuania and Hungary, came to same conclusion: Million of people are affected by Fake News.

 


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HOW TO FIGHT FAKE NEWS

We all know that fake news has some serious consequences and people struggle to separate them from the truth. For this reason, in this article, I will write about how to identify the fake news.

  1. Develop a critical thinking

Instead of approaching emotionally to the news, you should approach what you see and hear rationally and critically. it’s essential.

  1. Check the source

Check the URL of the page. Strange-sounding URLs that end in extensions like “.infonet” and “.offer,” rather than “.com” or “.co.uk,” or that contain spelling errors, may mean that the source is suspect.

Check the publisher and news agency. Are they experts in this field? Consider their reputation and professional experiences.

  1. See who else is reporting

If the story is true, other well-known news publishers should be publishing it too. Stories from organizations like Reuters, CNN and the BBC, will have been checked and verified beforehand. But still powerful people can create fake news because they own the big news organizations too.

  1. Examine the evidence

A true news story includes plenty of facts – quotes from experts, survey data and official statistics. If these are missing from the story, you should question it from the publisher.

  1. Look for fake images

The fake stories usually contain fake images to give people a shock. Fortunately, there are some warning signs that you can look out for in fake images. However, only half of us have the ability to tell when images are fake. So, you can use tools such as Google Reverse Image Search to check whether the image has been edited or used in the wrong context.

Written by: Ganbaatar Tumurkhuyag

Source:

  • Christina Nagler, Harvard Summer School, 4 Tips for Spotting a Fake News Story,

https://www.summer.harvard.edu/inside-summer/4-tips-spotting-fake-news-story

 


 

Fake news Traveling 6 times faster…

FAKE NEWS TRUMP

SO WHAT ABOUT FAKE NEWS?

Fake news are travelling 6 times faster than real ones,according to a scientific research of America.

Furthermore, fake news can find easily a bigger audience.While the truth is seldom difussed by more of 1.000 users,the top of 1% of fake news usually spread to 1.000 until 100.000 users.

A real story needs approximately about 6 times of time to reach to the 1.500 people,with reference to time that a unreal story can reach to the same number of people.

The researchers, led by Soros Vosugi, of the Media Lab Laboratory at MIT University’s Media Lab, who published the paper in the journal Science, compared the diffusion of true and false information to dissemination via retweet 2006-2017.

Written by Geraldo


 

7 News Sources You Can Trust

Today our world is spinning around the internet, social media and all the information we get from there. However, not all the information is right. There are too many unreliable sources around us that are spoilt with fake news and unfortunately many people get hooked and believe them. This is why we have to know, which information sources we can trust. In this list we provide you with 10 trustworthy news sources known around the world.

FINANCIAL FAKE NEWS

  1. BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is the largest broadcaster in the world. The British government funds the organization and so it is not beholden to corporate interests. BBC has a history of over 90 years with a well-earned reputation for accurate, unbiased reporting. AllSides classifies it as a center news source—meaning if you want balance, it’s one of the best news sites.
    The BBC’s reputation, however, is a strong one. It was one of the most highly rated in the Pew Research Center’s 2014 trustworthiness study, with all groups except the consistently conservative rating is as more trusted than distrusted. And even that group was relatively neutral about it.
  2. CNN
    CNN presents itself as the most ‘trusted name in news’ available to the TV viewing public. Of course, this claim of integrity is to be greatly valued if the news channel lives up to such a standard when fairly scrutinized. Democracy, in the complex circumstances of modernity, depends on trust to remain viable. In an important sense CNN seems trustworthy. To the best of its ability it appears to search for and impart the truth with respect to its coverage. Unlike the American president, it does not lie or deliver ‘fake news.’ And for most issues it gives both sides of the story, and doesn’t keep shifting the goal posts to alter the narrative.
  3. C-SPAN
    Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network (C-SPAN) has been around since 1979. The channel provides unbiased news coverage of the United States federal government, U.S. political events, and limited coverage from the governments of the U.K., Canada, and Australia.
    C-SPAN is a private, nonprofit organization that has never failed a single fact check from mediabiasfactcheck.com.
  4. The Christian Science Monitor
    Because it’s a news magazine, the format of the Christian Science Monitor is a little different from other best news sources on this list. They run fewer stories, but those stories tend to be very in-depth. It was founded in response to the sensationalist press of the early 1900s, and it’s maintained a strong reputation over 100 years later, maintaining its independence from mainstream media corporations.
  5. The Economist
    The Economist has a reputation for high-quality reporting. Throughout its history, the Economist has championed issues on both sides of the political spectrum. Today, it does tend to have a bit more of a left lean. That being said, they’re not afraid to align themselves with the party they believe best supports their ideals, which focus on free trade and free markets.
  6. Reuters
    Reuters has a long and solid reputation for good reporting. The organization is owned by Thomson Reuters. This gives it added resistance to corporate influence. Reuters strives to use a “value-neutral approach” to guard against bias in its reporting (so much so that it has courted controversy, especially after refusing to use the word “terrorist” after the September 11 attacks in New York).
    While you may not be as familiar with Reuters as some of the other outlets listed here, they have a long-standing reputation for good journalism. Their Handbook of Journalism is a great resource for anyone reporting the news, and Reuters editors hold their journalists to its tenets.
  7. NPR
    This is likely to be a controversial one, as public broadcasting is strongly associated with liberal political views in the United States. However, NPR has a reputation for journalistic excellence. They’re invested in continued government funding, but they remain free of corporate bias.
    The Pew survey shows that conservatives tend to mistrust NPR, but its journalistic acumen is high. It’s known for rejecting sensationalism, issuing corrections when necessary, and fair reporting.

These thirteen news sites have earned themselves reputations for being trustworthy. That said, news, in general, tends to have a negativity bias, which you can counteract by seeking out positive news.

 

Reporters and editors also have their own biases, so it’s impossible to find 100 percent unbiased news—and that probably wouldn’t be very fun to read anyway. But, in general, you can trust what you read from these outlets. The key is to read multiple publications that include a few credible news sources from the other side of the fence.

Written by Austeja Sironaite


 

THE FAKE NEWS IN THE STOCK EXCHANGE

FAKE NEWS IN STOCKS

T.he stock exchange is often conditioned by false news, in, a well-constructed but untruthful news may in a short time spread on the market, with serious effects on the economy.

There is also a difference in use between the various social platforms in the dissemination of false news.  Given its nature as a continuous flow, Twitter is the social network that is the most suitable for modifying stock exchange prices.  The strategy is clear: it makes the reader lower his guard by playing on cognitive switches such as fear of loss and the desire to earn.  Up and down on the stock exchange

There are numerous cases of fake news that have affected the stock market values ​​of some securities, as in the case of the announcement via Twitter of the withdrawal from the Tesla stock market.  The automaker’s shares rose 11% in just two hours, only to give up 15% when the news didn’t come true.

Just as the media bubble built on Guardiola’s passage to Juventus led to a 25% increase in the share price at the time when the price had to decrease due to uncertainty in the technical guide.  Digital reputation

The fake news on the stock exchange are also used to build the reputation necessary to capture the trust of savers.  With personal sites built for paid items sold off as interviews and real news to profit, it is possible to build a virtual personality as a financial guru often boasting educational titles and non-existent international relations.

The court cases Alex Fodde and Antonio Proto are a faithful witness.


How can we defend ourselves?

 

The financial markets have their own equilibrium determined by several factors.  Although the price movement is not predictable, the choice of reference sources and the approach with which we are facing the investment, be it short, medium or long term, must be rational.

FAKE NEWS PIC

Just follow the simple rules.

  • First rule: check the sources.

We need to select what we read and share.  Always check the blue badges that distinguish the social profiles of journalists, politicians, public figures and their multimedia content on social networks.  In particular for financial news it is necessary to refer to institutional sites for the listing of securities and market indexes, and to the official websites of the major economic newspapers to verify the news.

  • Second rule: take time.

Haste is a bad counselor especially in the world of finance.  One of the mistakes that is often made in the management of one’s own investments is to decide on the thrust of the emotions generated by news and market trends.  This “non-strategy” is dangerous because it makes you lose sight of the objective with which the investment was planned.

Third rule: get help from an independent financial advisor.

Never decide for yourself, always ask for a second opinion before deciding.  Better to rely on a trusted advisor with whom to plan your life goals.  A consultant, preferably an independent consultant, helps you transform information into decisions by reducing irrational behavior.

Written by Attilio Versace


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MAGAZINE #2

Fake news on Facebook and YouTube

FAKE NEWS

 The fake news phenomenon has become more and more popular in recent years, especially because people have become misinformed about important facts. Because young people spend a lot of time on the Internet and on social networks, fake news has affected them a lot. A recent study shows that Facebook users exposed to such news are much easier to manipulate, and their critical thinking has decreased significantly. This is because people are constantly looking for spectacular facts, out of the ordinary and are willing to believe many articles without verifying the source.

Fake news is a method that newspapers and magazines often use to increase their popularity and make money. Their problem is that once a site or facebook page becomes known for that, people gradually lose their confidence and prefer to use another source. Because of this, many Facebook pages are constantly changing their names to attract new readers and to continue publishing fake content.

Also, another platform that has become very popular especially among young people is YouTube. If at first this was a refuge for those who wanted to avoid the errors presented on TV, YT became another means of propagating fake news. A common way to get views is to create catchy titles that don’t really reflect the content of the article or video at all. On YT this phenomenon is known as clickbait and closely resembles the problem of fake news. However, click baites do not misinform as much, but the mere fact that people want to cheat proves that public confidence in the media will drop significantly

That is why and learn to differentiate between reality and fake news. erasmus projects are recommended for the non-formal way in which they approach this subject and for the involvement they prove.

 


Democracy at a discount on the Fake News market.

 The concept of fake news is now widely used to describe the state of confusion and weakness we are experiencing. Particularly in politics, everyone is referring to fake news, even those who have often been caught reproducing lies.

 Isn’t it curious how everyone criticises them, how everyone is against fake newsFAKE NEWS ON MARKET, and no one admits to either relaying, using, or producing fake news? It’s like the gods, or the universe is conspiring against us, and fake news are spread as a natural phenomenon, more like a disease. This problem is no new at all, everybody knows or at least everybody suspects the sad truth. Politicians use them to serve robust business, political and geopolitical interests. One would say that it’s all about securing their governing power and the humiliation of their opponents. At the same time, the influence of the commercialised media grows, the real political power declines and politicians are being replaced. The political electorates are now called directors or communication specialists. It’s obvious anyway, in today’s parliaments there is no democratic victory but only battles for the best direction.

In practice, censorship has now given space to other techniques of hiding the truth and new methods of undermining critical thinking. Each one of us is a mobile media outlet because we not only consume but also produce fake news. We who dig the hole, fall into. We, ourselves, undermine our intelligence and eat spoon-fed food without wondering about its chemicals.

What’s the tragic result, though? All the primary and critical decisions of the world are now taken based on fake news. As Ancient Greeks used to say, whoever learns something doesn’t yet own the knowledge of it. So, we have to dig for the truth, discover knowledge and protect themselves from the yellow type. Anyhow, the right knowledge can only lead to right decisions and for the world’s shake, that can only be called a necessity.

 


 


The Problems Surrounding Hungary’s “Slavery Law”: Fake News?

SLAVERY FAKE

 The Hungarian parliament adopted, an amendment to the labor law, including the increase of the number of legal overtime hours per year from 250 to 400 maximum (a misleading broad range used by the opposition, since not everyone is concerned by the 400 maximum) in December 12, 2018.

The liberal opposition disrupted the vote, and a demonstration was called immediately in front of the parliament for the same evening. Demonstrations organized by liberal and pro-Brussels opposition parties. Several police officers were injured, dozens of people were arrested, and street furniture was degraded. The Christmas tree and the children’s sleds surrounding it were vandalized but saved in extremis by the police.

  1. No, the law that has just been passed in the Hungarian Parliament does not impose a requirement for employees to work unpaid overtime, but simply increases (by about one third) the number of paid hours one can be asked to work overtime; therefore, the “slave law” nickname that the opposition press has hung on it is, to say the least, exaggerated.
  2. No, no “masses” have materialized in the streets of Budapest. Despite the exaggerations of said press (which are widely repeated abroad – in particular by a Romanian press which simultaneously turns its back on the French Yellow Vests …), the demonstrations against the “slave law” (as aerial photos would easily prove) have merely consisted of a few hundred or, at most, a thousand people. With only structural unemployment left (i.e., nearly all employable people are already employed), the Hungarian labor market is now dominated by the employees. It’s therefore a sure bet that most of the protesters are not personally affected by the new law.

Once the propaganda has been swept away, it would be interesting to view this new Hungarian development in the broader context of those continental European countries which are burdened with a disastrous birth rate and yet are still seeking to limit the influx of non-European immigrants: for example, Austria’s 60-hour work week, or Russia’s increase of the age of retirement. In the long run, one may wonder whether their plans to preserve the ethnic identities of their respective countries will remain compatible with the needs of capitalism, which, by destroying family values in the industrialized countries, is tacitly demanding the globalization of the workforce.

To sum up we can empathize that while Hungarian opposition spread the fake news in order to weaken the ruling party. In the meantime, Hungarian government used this statement again to mention the immigration problem of Europe on its own favor.

 


Does Conte agree wish Masons?

 According to one of the most recent (and absurd) hoaxes circulating on social media, Giuseppe Conte would exchange with other influential personalities of the economic-political world of the “Masonic handshakes”. The image that would confirm this obscure conspiracy is a photograph of the meeting between the Italian Prime Minister and Christine Lagarde, operational director of the International Monetary Fund, who will also be the new president of the European Central Bank, the first woman in history in that role from November . In particular, according to the proponents of this theory, it is precisely the position of Conte’s hand to reveal the existence of a Masonic agreement between the two powerful leaders.

MASONS FAKE

First of all, however, it is certainly not an oddity that two institutional figures know each other and greet each other in a friendly tone and shake hands. Furthermore, Conte’s handshake is not at all Masonic because, even wanting to comply with the absurd conspiracies, it should be noted that the taking is not at all carried out by hand, but is more likely the result of a quick and informal greeting in which one is he takes the hand without paying much attention to the perfect position of the wrists and fingers. And then, if it really was a secret gesture of understanding, who would ever do it on a public occasion and in front of a photographer’s lens?

 


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MAGAZINE #3

Why to teach your kid about fake news?

What’s fake news? Fake news refers to events that never occurred, or it uses quotes that were never said. As an example, Donald Trump supposedly “admitting” that he is “Jewish” is fake news-he never said it; it’s a fake quote, it’s made up, and it never happened. Further, “fake news” is intentional— it’s not someone making an innocent mistake (like saying someone’s name wrong);

Why to teach your kid about fake news? Fake news is tricking children! Teach them to be smarter! manipulate or misinform us, often to serve a particular political agenda. So why do people get fooled by it? It reinforces something people already believe, or tells them something they think must be true because it sounds good to them. Also, fake news isn’t really news at all. It might look legitimate, but it tells about events that never occurred, or uses quotes that were never really said. Fake news and its effects on kids. Fake news is affecting all the categories of people but especially kids. Why we should teach them to learn how to figure out which information is true or fake?

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You would think that kids, still in the learning process, would not have access to fake news and if so, not that much power to spread them. Children consume news every day, from learning at school to hearing the latest in music, film, gaming and sport. And they are creators of news too. Anyone who has a social media profile can create news. According to a largescale study by Stanford Graduate School Education, young people at every stage from middle school to college were consistently unable to differentiate news from advertising or false information from the truth. Having this problem, they are spreading fake news unintentionally through social networks.

HOW TO PROTECT YOUR KIDS FROM FAKE NEWS: Talk with your children regularly about being safe and smart online, and make sure they know the door is always open to ask any questions they might have. Start conversations about stories you see on social media or photoshopped images on the cover of a magazine. Help kids use secure, reputable sites and be wary of social media accounts or websites that give misleading, inappropriate, or false information—some of which may appear enticing. While you can’t always be present to make sure kids stay safe online, you can set them up for success by teaching them how to spot fake news and any unreliable or inappropriate sites. Kids can “Be Internet Awesome” with your help and guidance.

 


 

Too old to avoid fake news ?

Elderly people using social media? One of the biggest nightmares of the youth in the 21th century, I guess. The majority of them are struggling with digitalization and they became the target of fake news. 2

To begin with, a lot of old people start using Internet day by day and they are facing with a flood of information. In my opinion, it is too intensive for them. They all grown up reading newspapers, and watching TV and most of them think that what is on the television must be true. Unfortunately, most of them fall for clickbait titles and they unintentionally share a myriad of misleading pictures, posts and news. They become victims of fake news. They are also the main target of every fake charity fundraising because of their wealth and innocence.

We, the youth, the representatives of the young generation should help them understanding how fake news works. We always teach them how to use digital devices, but they also have to learn about how to avoid falling for scams. They have to understand that there are a lot of misleading things on the internet and not everything what it looks like. There are some courses, especially for the elderly where they learn about the usage of computer, programs and websites. In conclusion, they have just entered to the digital world, so we have to be patient and supportive in order to help them become a confident user. I strongly believe that if we put the topic of fake news into these lectures that can raise awareness among them. Critical thinking is an essential part of using social media.



 

Conspiracu theories and fake news. Are they the same?

Gossip and hearsay has been proven to be of great importance through the history of human existence, since it brought people together, helped us develop trusting relationships and, subsequently, contributed to the survival and evolution of the human civilization. News was everywhere, some of which might have been fake, as well. So, why do we care so much about fake news these days?

Taking conspiracy theories and fake news as one is a common misconception that people believe. These two senses are close and they share some similarities, however they must not be equated. By definition, fake news are disseminated information that contains false facts or invalid incidents and they can be used for several purposes. Sometimes people start spreading rumors with no vicious aim. The rapid changes in the news transmission due to mass media and the internet has affected how we perceive news and information in general. In the heart of this groundbreaking situation we live in, the news that are communicated are not always cross-checked and people receive amounts of information that are so huge that they cannot face them critically, due to lack of time for processing. In such cases, some people or groups of people take advantage of the situation and promote or plant invalid information with a deeper purpose.

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Such events can easily lead the public opinion towards a specific direction and they can be used for profit reasons. 5 On the other hand, conspiracy theories work in a deeper, explanatory level and they usually invoke a conspiracy by sinister and powerful actors. They rise during unstable or ambiguous times and they thrive because they offer some explanation to people who feel lost in a certain situation that they cannot fully understand.

For example, theories like these were noticed during the World War II, while most of the population in Europe had been living in fear and terror. They couldn’t find a satisfying explanation for what was happening and the knowledge they had regarding politics was very limited. So rumors started spreading regarding these theories and they got much attention from big audiences, who thought that these narratives were actually true. To sum up with, fake news can be used as tools for the spreading of conspiracy theories.

The latter are supported by a specific state of mind, a mindset that serves the final purpose of the so called theory, and people who believe these theories perceive the world and many aspects of their every day life as proof for the existence of conspiracies against them from a small group, or elite. This is called circular reasoning, where everything is considered to be evidence that empowers the so-called “truth”.

Our world was radically demystified during the Enlightment but never created concrete epistemology in order to build on it and people still feel lost in this unstable existential condition. Conspiracy theories can give answers to some important concerns that trouble people and they create links between ideas and events, and fake news can be used in order to promote this mentality.

 


 

Fake news in history: the moon hoax 

Every person in his or her life will come across “fake news”. Sometimes false information can totally change our life and turn it upside down, but fake news is not only today’s problem. In the past, information was filtered through traditional media, such as newspapers and magazines on the one hand, and television and radio bulletins on the other. These outlets were meeting legal and professional standards to report the facts, although, in the case of the written press, they were free to shift them in line with their differing political allegiances. People used to read them to be entertained, not informed, that is why sometimes the newspapers and the magazines created fake, even ridiculous news, for people to buy.

4On the August 21st 1835, The New York Sun published a series of articles about the discovery of life on the moon. These were falsely attributed to a well-known astronomer of that time, named Sir John Herschel. The article reported that Herschel had made these discoveries using new “hydrooxygen magnifiers” and went on to describe in believable scientific details how the discovery was made. Bizarre life forms, inhabitants of the moon were described, painting an imaginary picture. “Of animals, he classified nine species of mammals, and five of ovipara. Among the former is a small kind of reindeer, the elk, the moose, the horned bear, and the biped beaver. The last resembles the beaver of the earth in every other respect than in its destitution of a tail, and its invariable habit of walking on only two feet. It carries its youngster in its arms like a human being and moves with an easy gliding motion.” The point in that story is that after accomplishing their goal of getting many new subscribers to their newspaper in August, the paper quietly announced in September that the story had been nothing more than a hoax. Whether you are skimming through historical newspaper archives or browsing through your Facebook feed, don’t believe everything you read. Check your facts with reliable sources and be skeptical of sensational claims.


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MAGAZINE #4

 Fake News Challenge

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The goal of the Fake News Challenge is to explore how machine learning and natural language processing, might be leveraged to combat the fake news problem. We believe that these AI technologies hold promise for significantly automating parts of the procedure human fact checkers use today to determine if a story is real or a hoax.

Assessing the veracity of a news story is a complex and cumbersome task, even for trained experts. Fortunately, the process can be broken down into steps or stages. A helpful first step towards identifying fake news is to understand what other news organizations are saying about the topic. We believe automating this process, called Stance Detection, could serve as a useful building block in an AI-assisted fact-checking pipeline.

2. It should be possible to build a prototype post-facto “truth labeling” system from a “stance detection” system. Such a system would tentatively label a claim or story as true/false based on the stances taken by various news organizations on the topic, weighted by their credibility. For example, if several high-credibility news outlets run stories that Disagree with a claim (e.g. “Denmark Stops Issuing Travel Visas to US Citizens”) the claim would be provisionally labeled as False. Alternatively, if a highly newsworthy claim (e.g. “British Prime Minister Resigns in Disgrace”) only appears in one very low-credibility news outlet, without any mention by high-credibility sources despite its newsworthiness, the claim would be provisionally labeled as False by such a truth labeling system. In this way, the various stances (or lack of a stance) news organizations take on a claim, as determined by an automatic stance detection system, could be combined to tentatively label the claim as True or False. While crude, this type of fully-automated approach to truth labeling could serve as a starting point for human fact checkers, e.g. to prioritize which claims are worth further investigation.

1. From our discussions with real-life fact checkers, we realized that gathering the relevant background information about a claim or news story, including all sides of the issue, is a critical initial step in a human fact checker’s job. One goal of the Fake News Challenge is to push the state-of-the-art in assisting human fact checkers, by helping them quickly gather the information they need to make their assessment. In particular, a good Stance Detection solution would allow a human fact checker to enter a claim or headline and instantly retrieve the top articles that agree, disagree or discuss the claim/headline in question. They could then look at the arguments for and against the claim, and use their human judgment and reasoning skills to assess the validity of the claim in question. Such a tool would enable human fact checkers to be fast and effective.

 


 

HOW MISINFORMATION FOOLED THE MAJORITY OF WORLD’S LARGEST DEMOCRACY

The following article demonstrates how fake news and misinformation led to winning the Country-level election with a massive mandate. India and Pakistan are famous for their long-term rivalry. On the morning of 14 February when the whole world was preparing for Valentine’s day, a car bomb attack killed 40 CRPF soldiers, bringing India and Pakistan to the brink of war. India retaliated by targeting Jaish-e-Mohammed terror camps in Pakistan.

11Soon after the incident, there was a wave of fake news on the social media about the next possible attacks and security threats for the country. Surprisingly this incident happened 3 months before the worlds largest election, which lasts for more than 1.5 months. A bunch of doctored photos and videos and fake reactions from the Politian, celebrity, and various world leaders. In the aftermath of Pulwama attack, CRPF has issued a statement saying fake news is in the air so don’t believe it. Facebook India said that they have never seen such a scale of fake content circulating on one a single story before.

Much of the fake news targeted the country’s primary opposition party, the Indian National Congress. One of the first such items to go viral was a photoshopped image that claimed to show Rahul Gandhi, the Congress party president, standing next to the suicide bomber. Another claimed that Priyanka Gandhi, Rahul’s sister and another Congress leader, had met the chief of the Pakistan Army before the attack occurred. An edited video of Priyanka was also circulated to convey the false impression that she had been laughing at a press conference held following the attack.

Summarization: The entire situation turned as economic wellness vs security concerns. With every political campaign, Pulwama attack was the primary issue to talk about. According to the Indian election commission, you can’t politicize Military or any other security personnel. However, there were a lot of accusations on Election commission for being favourable on Ruling party’s usage of Pulwama attack as a reason to gain votes. One of the other main entities involved in this chaos is “NEWS channels”, during this period most of the media outlets start their day by blaming neighbouring country and ends with cursing opposition party. I would like to shed some light on the irresponsible behaviour by some of the well-known news channels, for example, Zee news was asking people to vote if they wanted to have a WAR between India and Pakistan.

One more channel was demonstrating on how to survive a nuclear attack. Unfortunately, these channels are among the highest viewership. Nobody was asking the basic question about the incident, how did it happen, how intelligence failed or if intelligence agencies were aware of the possible situation, why there weren’t any significant steps taken to avoid the mishap. Fake news flooded on social media channels that people wanted revenge, and nobody cares about the economy, unfulfilled promises, demonetization, public health crises, dip in currency value. Prime minister while addressing one of his rallies said “As this year, we have a lot of young people who became eligible to cast their vote and will be voting for the first time. So, can this vote be dedicated to all those military personnel who were martyred during Pulwama attack”? Though many a time politicians have stoop to a lower level it’s not appropriate for the Prime Minister of the country to take advantage of such a tragic incident. Results are BJP won the election with big majority..

 


 

A Hollywood Film Is Using Fake News To Get Publicity

12In the last few years the concept of fake news has been troubling the nations and the public opinion, stimulating the debate and dividing the masses. As a big social phenomenon, “fake news” were the inspiration for a lot of movies, books, paintings and other form of artistic expression. The poster of the movie Connected with the movies, there is an interesting case of use of fake news that involve the American film studio 20th century fox. When they had to promote “A cure for wellness”, a movie about a ‘fake’ cure that makes people sicker, they decided to use fake news as a promotional instrument. They conceived a viral social campaign based on fake news spreaded by a fake wellness site, healthandwellness.co, that looked like the legit HealthCare.gov and a fake bottled water company.

The fake news they spread were about Donald Trump, famous people and other topics that get people talking. Interspersed with the stories were ads for A Cure For Wellness, and editorial call-outs for readers to engage with the stories on Twitter with the hashtag #acureforwellness. Many sites shared those news thinking that were true and also a lot of people, unknowingly contributing to a massive viral Fighting Fake News. 20th century fox had to apologize for this campaign because it has been accused of deceptive marketing ant admitted the promotional campaign was “inappropriate on every level”. Following this admission, the sites now redirect to the film’s official website. However, some of the websites’ content can still be viewed in archive mode.



Fighting Fake News THE SECOND SECRET LIFE OF ADOLF HITLER

13Do you know that God gave to Adolf Hitler a second chance to live a normal life in order to meet Him in paradise? If you don’t, then read the following story… There is a book that it is called “Grey wolf” and it is claimed that Hitler escaped punishment and lived out his life in tranquillity in Patagonia until his death in 1962 at the age of 73.

More specifically, “Grey wolf” is a dramatization of real events – the untold story of Adolf Hitler’s escape to Argentina at the end of WW2. Based on interviews with eye witnesses in Argentina and tears of detailed research, the book covers events from Hitler’s escape by air from the ruins of Berlin on April 28th, 1945, to Fuerteventura on the Canary Islands and then by U-boat to Argentina where he died tormented, demented and betrayed at a small house “La Clara”, 45 miles far from San Carlos at Bariloche in the Argentine Andes, at 3PM on February 13th, 1962.

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But what is true finally? Let’s read what followed this fact… The Escape of Adolf Hitler, which was made into a documentary film as well, have been accused of plagiarism by a journalist in Argentina called Abel Basti. Abel Basti had done a research about Adolf Hitler and he claims that his research has been used without his permission. “Grey Wolf”, which was published by Sterling Publishing, based in New York, challenged the accepted view that the Führer shot himself in his Berlin bunker on 30 April 1945 and that Eva Braun also committed suicide by taking cyanide. Following publication of the book, Basti said that he was angry when he saw that the proof of Hitler’s survival is a photograph of him.

The book has also annoyed Ricardo D’Aloia, the editorial director of the newspaper Ambito Financerio, because he was accused of giving the reports of Basti’s research. D’Aloia is angered at the suggestion that he was the one who gave to the authors video and potential evidence belonging to Basti. Last but not least, the claims about Hitler’s life in exile in Argentina have been ridiculed by historian Guy Walters, who pronounced them “2,000% rubbish” when the book came out. What is true finally? Was Hitler still alive? Even after his death he managed to be the center of the attention for one more time.


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MAGAZINE #5

THE DANGERS OF FAKE MEDICAL NEWS

 Why are we vulnerable to fake news and why is it so hard to get rid of it? This is a complex question, but one important factor is that fake news delivers clear and simple messages that people want to hear. By contrast, real news is limited by, well, reality, and can often only deliver difficult, complex, and confusing messages that people often don’t want to hear.

Fake medical news achieves success because it delivers hope and promises attractive, easy and readily available solutions to common health problems or concerns. 1 Who is fooling you? Sometimes it’s easy to identify fake medical news, at least if you have some level of sophistication about scientific and medical matters.

But millions of scientifically unsophisticated people are vulnerable to its promises and hopes and are susceptible to countless swindles and schemes, often promulgated by famous, telegenic charlatans like Dr. Oz, Gwyneth Paltrow, Andrew Wakefield, Stephen Mercola, and others. But the issue is not always so simple. It’s not always easy to distinguish between fake and real medical news, even for highly sophisticated and scientifically literate people.

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FAKE NEWS: PLASTIC BOTTLES CAUSE CANCER This misinformation can, in part, be traced to a viral email that first appeared in 2004 and has now been shared hundreds of millions of times. Claiming to be a ‘Cancer Update from John Hopkins Hospital’ in the US, the email warned that freezing or heating plastic packaging released cancercausing dioxins into food and drink.

So the idea that plastic bottles cause cancer is entirely fake. Yet versions of the original email continue to be reproduced and shared in social media posts. Similar claims, widely repeated, relate to a chemical that is used in plastic containers, bisphenol A (BPA), infiltrating the food or drinks that are kept inside them. BPA, it has been said, interferes with the body’s sex hormones and is linked to breast and prostate cancers, obesity, diabetes and fertility problems. Cancer Research UK says this is also a myth.

The European Food Safety Authority did a full scientific review of BPA in 2015 and decided there was no health risk at current BPA exposure levels. Fake news is not just a failure of the media, though the media certainly deserves intense scrutiny and criticism. Fake medical news exists with the support, both active and passive, of the entire medical and scientific establishment.

Too often scientists play a passive role and do nothing to prevent the spread of fake news. Or, even worse, they actively support dubious claims, while reaping financial benefits.Taking an even wider perspective, fake medical news is an inevitable consequence of the catastrophic failure of our entire educational system and the larger culture in which it exists. This culture has failed to inculcate in the minds of the general population even the most basic and essential scientific concepts and principles.

 


 

The funny side of fake news Fake

The funny side of fake news Fake news can be really annoying when the topic is serious, but most of the time they are easily recognisable. If you are using internet and social media you will scroll past at least one article or maybe even more. Some news media write fake articles on a mistake and some of the sites do all of their articles as fake news to bring attention to themselves and make profit of off that. Fake news aren’t created to just manipulate other people, some of them are written to have a good laugh about something or someone.

I found a site called Huzlers.com, which is full of fake news, but they are not about politics, not about certain people, It’s just full of articles about life in general. The funny part about the fake news is that there is no censorship. For example, there is an article called “Gang Members Raise $150,000 On GoFundMe To Buy Guns For Drive By Shooting” and then there is their quote ““BUYING CARS, AND THEN HAVING TO LIGHT THAT B*TCH ON FIRE AFTER LEAVING THE SCENE OF A CRIME CAN GET VERY EXPENSIVE” which sounds kinda funny.

The point is, the whole page is full of articles like this one that are supposed to make people laugh. In conclusion fake news are created not only to manipulate, not for politic purposes, but for good reasons as well. Some people decide to write these articles as a joke for others to laugh at and that seems like a good use of fake news. From my perspective that should be the only reason and purpose to create fake news, to make other people happy.

 


 

 Responsible Journalism and Indian Journalism

21In recent times, it is a bit difficult to reach the truth just by looking at the news, you always have to go in a bit of depth to reach the truth. Also, the time needed to spread fake news and make the public believe it has decreased a lot over the past years as compared to disinformation campaigns of the previous century which could take years to spread but now a days it is just a matter of a day or two.

Similar thing happened a few mon22ths back in May 1st, soon after the news of killing and mutilation of two indian security personnel along the lines of control (LOC) was reported many news outlets started reporting retaliation by the indian army by (AAj tak) was the first to share this news followed by elaborate reports on retaliation by indian army by AAj tak’s sister concern India today, Zee news,ABP news, and India TV. It turned out that post (kirpan) was actually an Indian post and the news of an immediate retaliation by the indian army was fake.TV channels had gone overboard without seeking an official confirmation from the army.

An army spokesperson confirmed to (Hindustan times) that “there was no retaliation whatsoever by us in the K-G sector on Monday night.They (TV channels) go ballistic without asking us anything.We will retaliate and when we do,we will come out with an official statement.” After this, we should come to this realization that even sometimes news channels, on whom we rely for information, just spread the news without confirming it just to get more viewership and indeed more money.

 


 


 

WHAT INVASION???

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The fake news has become a great problem in our society. Italy is a country that does not have a good system of information. According to Jo Cox Italy has a high level of dis-information about the immigration. This dis-information has determined the increasing of xenophobic polices. One of most popular fake news in Italy is that we have an invasion of migrants.

This idea has been supported also by political parties like Lega Nord that it has used the immigration to justify the national problem like economic crisis, unemployment and other social problems. The people without the proper information have been influenced by this politics of intolerance and the believe that Italia’s problems are a result of the immigration.

The Eurostat data shows that Italy does not have the most member of refugees, migrants and seeking asylums, in fact Germany and UK have more immigrants than Italy.


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